Valentin Gefter

Director of the Human Rights Institute, Moscow. Born on 24 November 1944 in Moscow, Gefter worked at the Soviet Academy of Sciences Institute of High Temperatures as a research fellow. In 1995 he began cooperation with the Memorial Human Rights Centre, where he supervised the programme "Political Repressions in the CIS Countries" and acted as a board member. Since 1998 he has been Director of the Human Rights Institute. There he is member of numerous working groups related to prisoners' rights and the reform of the judiciary. He is one of the editors of the Russian Human Rights Bulletin and lead editor of the Russian Bulletin of Amnesty International


‘Torture’ in Criminal Law: Legal Norms and Standards of Judicial Review

Intentional excessive suffering which an individual experiences against their will and cannot independently stop… (a definition of ‘torture’) The epigraph above does not sound […]

How Does National and International Law Protect Foreign Offenders?

While mindful of the challenges related to migration and asylum in Europe, one should not forget about yet another category of people who can […]

To Elect, to Delegate, or to Appoint?

Following the United States presidential election of 2016, the very mechanism of Electoral College and, more generally, the democratic institutions of indirect citizen participation […]